Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with activity against HIV. It is used with other antiretrovirals for combination therapy of HIV infection.
Efavirenz/Stocrin in Kenya is administered by mouth as capsules or tablets in an adult dose of 600 mg once daily; alternatively, it may be given as an oral solution in an adult dose of 720 mg once daily. Dosing at bedtime is recommended during the first 2 to 4 weeks of therapy to improve tolerability. Doses (as capsules) for children over the age of 3 years are based on body-weight: children weighing 13 to 14 kg are given 200 mg once daily; those weighing 15 to 19 kg, 250 mg once daily; those weighing 20 to 24 kg, 300 mg once daily; those weighing 25 to 32.4 kg, 350 mg once daily; those weighing 32.5 to 39 kg, 400 mg once daily; and those weighing 40 kg or more, 600 mg once daily. Bioavailability of efavirenz from the oral solution is less than that from the capsule and so proportionately higher doses are used; the dose ranges, which are again calculated in terms of body-weight, also depend on the age range.
Adverse Effects of Stocrin
The most common adverse effects associated with efavirenz are skin rashes and CNS disturbances. Mild rashes may resolve on continued treatment, but severe forms may occur and erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported occasionally. CNS symptoms include dizziness, headache, insomnia or somnolence, impaired concentration, abnormal dreaming, and convulsions. Symptoms resembling psychoses and severe acute depression have also been reported. Other adverse effects include nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea, fatigue, and pancreatitis. Raised liver enzyme values have occurred, particularly in patients with viral hepatitis. Raised serum-cholesterol and -triglyceride concentrations have been reported.
Precautions of Stocrin 600mg tabs
Efavirenz is contra-indicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment, and should be used with caution, and liver enzymes values monitored, in patients with mild to moderate liver disease. Caution should be exercised in patients with a history of seizures or psychiatric disorders. Efavirenz/Stocrin should be discontinued if a severe skin rash, associated with blistering, desquamation, mucosal involvement, or fever, develops. Monitoring of plasma-cholesterol concentrations may be considered during efavirenz treatment.
False-positive results in some urinary cannabinoid tests have been reported in subjects receiving efavirenz.
Efavirenz/Stocrin in Kenya has been associated with carcinogenicity and teratogenicity in animals.